Tutorial 1 : Thin-film synthesis from the vapor phase: fundamentals of processes and growth evolution
The tutorial aims at providing an overview of: (i) thin-film vapor-based synthesis techniques; (ii) fundamentals of plasma processes used for vapor generation and thin-film deposition; (iii) atomic-scale processes and phenomena encountered during vapor-based film deposition. The primary audience of the tutorial is Ph.D. and M.Sc. students working in the field, but also scientists and engineers.
Module 1 (Stephanos Konstantinidis) – Low-pressure plasma physics and chemistry for thin-film deposition
Low-pressure plasma-based processes, such as magnetron sputtering or plasma–enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PEVCD) and their variants are studied and developed for a long time to deposit functional nanometer-thick films onto various substrates. Such functional coatings must have tailored physico-chemical properties to fit to the targeted application in fields like mechanics, optics, electronics, biomaterials, etc. The film structural and chemical characteristics are governed by the plasma. Therefore, the plasma characteristics must be monitored and tailored to control film growth and coating properties. The goal of this module to provide key insights into the relationships among plasma characteristics, plasma-surface interactions, and coating properties relationship, by addressing the following topics:
· Basics of collisional processes in low-pressure plasmas
· Plasma-surface interactions
· Plasma analysis techniques
Module 2 (Kostas Sarakinos) – Thin-film nucleation and growth
Thin-film technology is pervasive in many applications, including microelectronics, optics, magnetics, hard and corrosion resistant coatings, micromechanics, etc. Progress in each of these areas depends upon the ability to deposit thin films selectively and controllably (thickness ranging from tens of angstroms to micrometers) with specified physical properties. This, in turn, requires control—often at the atomic level—of film microstructure and microchemistry. In this module the following topics will be addressed:
· The concept of vapor-based thin-film deposition
· Film-formation stages and related atomic-scale processes
· Microstructure evolution in polycrystalline films
· Morphological evolution in epitaxial films.
Stephanos Konstantinidis is Senior Research Associate of the National Funds for Scientific Research (FNRS) and Professor at the University of Mons (UMONS) in Belgium. He holds a PhD degree from UMONS (2004). At UMONS, he is teaching analytical chemistry at B.Sc. level and plasma physics and chemistry at M.Sc. level. The goal of his research is to contribute towards the fundamental understanding of plasma-surface interactions. His studies focus on cold plasma-based methods, in particular magnetron sputtering processes, for the synthesis of functional thin films and nano-objects. To achieve this goal, advanced plasma analysis and surface characterization tools are utilized.
Kostas Sarakinos is Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at the University of Helsinki, Finland, and Guest Researcher at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. He holds a Ph.D. degree in Physics from RWTH Aachen University, Germany (2008) and a Habilitation degree in Materials Science from Linköping University, Sweden (2012). Kostas’s research interests include atomistic processes during film nucleation and growth, growth manipulation, in situ growth monitoring, and deterministic and stochastic film growth simulations. He has co-authored 70 papers and 4 book chapters. He teaches courses related to materials, surface, and thin-film physics at undergraduate and post-graduate level.
Tutorial 2 : Properties and Applications of Tribological and Decorative Coatings
Understanding the factors that control friction and wear are of vital industrial and economic importance. The function, reliability, and lifetime of many mechanical, electromechanical and even biological systems are impacted by the complex relationships between materials, surfaces, design, and the environments that they are exposed to. Increasing complexity and performance requirements that are driven by economics, and a heightened awareness of health and safety issues with traditional chemical plating processes offers new opportunities and challenges for novel coatings and advanced surface engineering techniques. This tutorial is intended for engineers, designers, managers and purchasing professionals who have a need to specify, develop and procure coatings for tribological applications (i.e., those applications in which wear must be reduced or prevented and/or friction minimized). These coatings will likely require corrosion-resistant properties to operate in arduous conditions and must also exhibit functional characteristics (color, adhesion scratch resistance, etc.) that span the complete range from industrial to consumer products. The tutorial begins with a description of the mechanics of wear and discusses the criteria for selecting coatings for optimal tribological performance. An overview of the main processes for producing tribological coatings is provided with emphasis on vacuum deposition methods. Tribological test methods also are reviewed, including tests for adhesion and mechanical properties. Finally, coatings developed for enhanced tribological and decorative properties are described and examples of applications are presented.
· Wear mechanisms and theories (adhesion, abrasion, erosion, fatigue, corrosion, etc.)
· Tribological and mechanical test methods (e.g., pin on disc, abrasive wheel, scratch adhesion, microhardness, etc.)
· Coating processes and selection
· Benefits of ceramic coatings by PVD methods
· Information on tribological coatings (e.g., metal nitrides, carbides, oxides, superlattices, multilayers, nanocomposites, DLC, etc., plus hybrid and duplex processes)
· Applications information (e.g., metal cutting and forming, molding, bearings, pumps, auto parts, etc.) For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.
Instructor: Dr. Allan Matthews, Professor of Surface Engineering and Tribology, The University of Manchester – United Kingdom
Instructor: Dr. Gary Doll, Timken Professor of Surface Engineering, University of Akron – Akron, OH